by Norman Manzon

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* Each item is linked for your convenience *

Ii. WHO IS israel?
1. When Did Israel Begin to Form?
2. When Will Its Formation Cease?
1. Defining "Jew"
2. Could A Jew Forfeit His Jewish Identity?
a. Jews Who Live Outside the Land
b. Idolatrous Jews

3. "The Jews" as Used by Yeshua and His Disciples
a. Passages in Question
b. Clarifications
c. Other Evidence and Usages
d. Summing Up
4. Were Gentiles Who Joined Themselves to Israel Called Jews?

5. Were Gentile Converts to Judaism Called Jews?
6. Esther 8:17


When the Most High gave the nations their inheritance, When He separated the sons of man, He set the boundaries of the peoples according to the number of the sons of Israel. - Deuteronomy 32:8

Tiny Israel is the central nation of history and prophecy. It is the focus and hub of the world's news. Its contributions to civilization and world history are far out of proportion to its size. How it relates to God has a direct effect on eschatological (end-time) events. How nations and individuals relate to her affects their destinies. It is therefore of great importance for all of Yeshua's followers to study what Scripture has to say about Israel. God promised Israel's patriarch, Abraham, I will bless those who bless you, And the one who curses you I will curse (Genesis 12:3. Cf. Matthew 25:40,45; Romans 1:16): He holds us accountable for our actions, words and witness in regard to her, and toward her. This is especially true of the Jewish believer as he has a particular responsibility to those of his own household (1 Timothy 5:8).

We will therefore undertake a careful study of Israel. May God give us grace and insight as we do, and bear fruit through our lives because of it! We'll begin with the AMC's Statement on Israel, and then cover every point in it, though not in the same order.


We believe Israel is God's special people, distinct from the body of Messiah, chosen by Him to be a holy nation and a kingdom of priests. The election of Israel is irrevocable. Jewish believers in Yeshua have a unique twofold identity. They are the spiritual remnant of physical Israel and at the same time are part of the body of Messiah. We believe the Abrahamic Covenant is an irrevocable, unconditional covenant God made with Jewish people. This covenant provides title to the land of Israel for the Jewish people and promises a descendant (the Messiah) who would come to redeem Israel and bless the entire world. The spiritual blessings of the Abrahamic Covenant overflow to all the nations. God will ultimately fulfill every aspect of the covenant in the Messianic Kingdom, both physical and spiritual. We believe that Israel's eternal covenant relationship with God does not grant atonement to individual Jewish people. Therefore, it is the believer's privilege and duty to tell the Good News of Messiah Yeshua to the Jewish people. (Genesis 12:1-3, 15:1-21, 17:1-21; Romans 11:1-29; Galatians 3:14-17)



We must begin by identifying the subject of our study, especially because many ideas abound on the matter. Who is Israel? Who are the Jews? Who are the Hebrews?

Ii. WHO IS israel?


In Scripture, nations are determined by natural descent through male lineage. Every genealogy in Scripture reflects this. For example, Genesis 10:5 says, From these the coastlands of the nations were separated into their lands, every one according to his language, according to their families, into their nations; and the verse is preceded and followed by passages designating nations by male descent. For example, verse 6: The sons of Ham were Cush and Mizraim and Put and Canaan.

Cush. He and his line most likely lived in the land of Nubia and Ethiopia. . . . Mizraim is the well known Hebrew name for. . . . Upper and Lower Egypt. . . . Put. . . . they were located in North Africa. . . . Canaan [was] the father of the Canaanites.1

The sons of Ham were the patriarchs of the aforementioned nations, all of which are named by the names of their patriarchs elsewhere in Scripture as well as here.

Though "nation" is often used in reference to a country, in this study it will primarily be used with the meaning of a people descended from a common patriarch.


The nation of Israel is likewise determined by male descent. God singled out Abraham and covenanted to form a great nation through him (Genesis 12:1-2). Out of all of Abraham's sons, God passed on the covenant solely through Isaac (Genesis 26:2-5); and out of Isaac's sons, Jacob and Esau, God passed on the covenant solely to Jacob (Genesis 28:13-15). Subsequently, Jacob's name became Israel (Genesis 32:28), and all of the descendants of the man Israel by male lineage became known as Israelites, which is reflected in one of the designations of the nation: b'nei Yisrael, sons of Israel (Genesis 42:5, 45:21, 46:5, Exodus 1:1, Deuteronomy 23:17, 1 Chronicles 2:1); and the nation became known as "Israel" even in the man Israel's lifetime (Genesis 34:7).

But what of the one whose mother is an Israelite and whose father is a Gentile? Normally, that person would be reckoned as part of the father's nation. However, if such a person properly identifies with the nation Israel, then that person is considered an Israelite in God's eyes. Timothy was such a one.

Acts 16:1-3: 1: Paul came also to Derbe and to Lystra. And a disciple was there, named Timothy, the son of a Jewish woman who was a believer, but his father was a Greek. 2. and he was well spoken of by the brethren who were in Lystra and Iconium. 3. Paul wanted this man to go with him; and he took him and circumcised him because of the Jews who were in those parts, for they all knew that his father was a Greek.

Paul freely circumcised Timothy because Timothy had a Jewish mother, and circumcision was a requirement of the covenant that God made with Abraham. Genesis 17:12-14: 12. And every male among you who is eight days old shall be circumcised throughout your generations. . . . 14. But an uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that person shall be cut off from his people; he has broken My covenant. (The Mosaic Covenant, rendered inoperative at the cross, did not come into play here. The Abrahamic Covenant, still standing today, did.) In contradistinction, Paul refused to circumcise Titus, a man who did not have a Jewish parent (Galatians 2:1-5, esp. v. 3). Thus, if one has a Jewish mother and a Gentile father, he or she may join their hearts with the Israelite nation as the one nation they identify with more than any other, and thereby be considered an Israelite in God's eyes. In the case of the male, that joining must be confirmed by circumcision. If he or she does not so join themselves, then he or she is considered a Gentile by virtue of the male parent.

To bring it all home, one is an Israelite if he or she is a descendant of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob through male lineage; and if one has a Gentile father and a Jewish mother, then that person is also an Israelite in God's eyes if proper identification is made. These are the sole requirements that Scripture presents for being considered an Israelite.

To help clarify matters, there is another valid definition of Jewishness which must be distinguished from the biblical one. It is the sociological one, and it defines Jewishness as an ethnicity. Jewishness as an ethnicity includes all who identify with the Jewish people so closely as to consider themselves part of the Jewish nation and culture. This identification may be the result of conversion to Judaism, marrying into a Jewish family, adoption as a child into a Jewish family, and the like. An important distinction between the two is that the biblical definition is a sharply defined one, whereas the sociological definition is not. According to Scripture, one who is a descendant of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob is a Jew. As to the sociological definition: Suppose a man of Irish descent marries into a Jewish family, converts to Judaism, and identifies equally with his Irish heritage and culture and the Jewish heritage and culture he married and converted into. Is he, sociologically, an Irishman or a Jew? Well, that depends on who you ask!

The key point that must be noted here is that, whereas the sociological definition of Jewishness is valid in sociological studies, biblical studies of Jewishness must be based on the biblical definition, and it is the biblical definition that will be adhered here. There are things that God says is true of bloodline Jews that do not apply to anyone else, even to sociological Jews who do not carry the bloodline of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.


1. When Did Israel Begin to Form?
Israel began its formation approximately 2000 B.C. through Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.

2. When Will Its Formation Cease?
This will be shown in two points:
1) Many passages indicate that Jews will be present on earth during the future Messianic Age or Millennium. One example is Zechariah 8:23: Thus says the LORD of hosts, 'In those days ten men from all the nations will grasp the garment of a Jew, saying, "Let us go with you, for we have heard that God is with you."'
2) Isaiah 65:20 indicates that children will be born during the Millennium: No longer will there be in it an infant who lives but a few days.

From these points we can conclude that Israelites will be born until the very end of the Messianic Age.

The nation of Israel began to form about 2000 B.C., and will continue to form through the end of the Millennium.


I have been using "Israelite" and "Jew" interchangeably. Is this biblically valid?

1. Defining "Jew"
John 4:9: Therefore the Samaritan woman said to Him, "How is it that You, being a Jew, ask me for a drink since I am a Samaritan woman?" (For Jews have no dealings with Samaritans.) In this passage, a Gentile identified Yeshua as a Jew, and He did not deny it; and John, an Israelite, refers to Yeshua's nation as "Jews."

John 18:35: Pilate answered, "I am not a Jew, am I? Your own nation and the chief priests delivered You to me; what have You done?" Here again a Gentile identifies Yeshua's nation as Jews, and He does not deny it.

In Acts 21:27-28, Luke identifies Jews as Israelites: 27. Jews from Asia, upon seeing him in the temple, began to stir up all the crowd and laid hands on him, 28. crying out, "Men of Israel, come to our aid! This is the man who preaches to all men everywhere against our people. . . .

In an attempt to gain the ear of that hostile crowd, Paul identified himself as one of the men of Israel by crying out, I am a Jew; (verse 39); and in Philippians 3:5, he described himself as circumcised the eighth day, of the nation of Israel. . . .

It is clear from these passages that Jews were identical to Israelites in the minds of Gentiles, unbelieving Jews, Yeshua's disciples, and Yeshua Himself. It is noteworthy that Paul, a post-cross believer and apostle to the Gentiles, identified himself as a Jew and an Israelite to Jews and Gentiles alike.

A Jew is a member of the nation of Israel, and "the Jews," used in its broadest biblical sense, is identical to the nation of Israel.

2. Could A Jew Forfeit His Jewish Identity?
a. Jews Who Live Outside the Land
Among those who were present on the Day of Pentecost were visitors from Rome, both Jews and proselytes (Acts 2:10).

Jews who lived outside the Land were still considered Jews.

b. Idolatrous Jews
Judges 8:33-34: 33. Then it came about, as soon as Gideon was dead, that the sons of Israel again played the harlot with the Baals, and made Baal-berith their god. 34. Thus the sons of Israel did not remember the LORD their God. . . .

Israelites who worshiped Baal were still considered Israelites. This is one of many such passages that bring this out.

Nowhere in Scripture is there a teaching or example of the national identity of one born of Israelite parents forfeit for any reason.

3. "The Jews" as Used by Yeshua and His Disciples
a. Passages in Question
There are quite a few times in the New Testament, particularly in John and Acts, when "the Jews" is used in such a way as to cause some to wonder whether Yeshua, John and other disciples were distancing themselves from the Jewish nation. Here are three such passages:

John 2:18,20: 18. The Jews then said to Him, "What sign do You show us as your authority for doing these things?" . . . . 20. The Jews then said, "It took forty-six years to build this temple, and will You raise it up in three days?"

John 5:16,18: 16. For this reason the Jews were persecuting Yeshua, because He was doing these things on the Sabbath. . . . 18: For this reason therefore the Jews were seeking all the more to kill Him. . . .

John 11:55: Now the Passover of the Jews was near. . . .

In John 13:33, Yeshua said, Little children, I am with you a little while longer. You will seek Me; and as I said to the Jews, now I also say to you, "Where I am going, you cannot come."

b. Clarifications
We've seen from the "Defining 'Jew'" passages that Yeshua and His disciples did not deny their Jewishness nor distance themselves from their Jewish brethren; yet passages like these need clarification.

What did Yeshua mean by the Jews in John 13:33 where He said, I said to the Jews? John 7:32-34 shows that he was referring to the Pharisees and chief priests, the latter group of whom were Sadducees. The Pharisees and Sadducees constituted the highest religious and judicial authorities among the Jews. In other words, by the Jews, Yeshua was referring to the Jewish authorities in Israel. This also clarifies what John meant by the Jews in 2:18,20 and 5:16,18.

What did John mean by the Jews in 11:55, where he used the phrase, the Passover of the Jews?
1. It was
the Passover of the Jews simply because God enjoined the keeping of the Passover upon the Jewish nation (Exodus 12); and
2. Prior to the cross, Yeshua and His disciples recognized themselves as Jews under the Law of Moses and kept the Passover
. Matthew 26:17-18: 17. Now on the first day of Unleavened Bread the disciples came to Yeshua and asked, "Where do You want us to prepare for You to eat the Passover?" 18. And He said, "Go into the city to a certain man, and say to him, 'The Teacher says, "My time is near; I am to keep the Passover at your house with My disciples.'"

John was simply referring to the Jewish nation.

c. Other Evidence and Usages
In Philippians 3:5, Paul identified himself as an Israelite in four different ways: (1) Circumcised the eighth day, (2) of the stock of Israel, (3) of the tribe of Benjamin, (4) an Hebrew of the Hebrews (a Hebrew-speaking Hebrew). . . .

In Galatians 2:11-13, Paul contrasts Peter with Gentiles, thereby declaring Peter to be a Jew. He also refers to the other Jewish believers present as the rest of the Jews, and to Barnabas as a Jew.

In the very next verse, Paul addresses Peter directly as a Jew: If you, being a Jew, live like the Gentiles and not like the Jews, how is it that you compel the Gentiles to live like Jews?

John 11:31: Then the Jews who were with her in the house, and consoling her [Martha]. . . . In this passage, John uses the Jews to identify the nationality of everyday Israelites.

d. Summing Up
1) Yeshua and His Jewish disciples did not deny their Jewishness, but declared it.
2) At times, they used "the Jews" in reference to:
a] the nation as a whole,
b] the nation's Jewish authorities, and
c] everyday Israelites.
3) In no case did they or any writer of Scripture use "the Jews" or "Israel" to refer to anyone other than descendants of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.

4. Were Gentiles Who Joined Themselves to Israel Called Jews?
In Ruth 1:16, Ruth said, Do not urge me to leave you or turn back from following you; for where you go, I will go, and where you lodge, I will lodge. Your people shall be my people, and your God, my God.

Ruth was a Moabitess, but moved into the Land and placed herself under the government of Israelite judges; yet, she is never called an Israelitess or Jewess, but a Moabitess, even just six verses later (Ruth 1:22; 2:2, 21; 4:5; 4:10).

5. Were Gentile Converts to Judaism Called Jews?
In the Ruth passage, not only did Ruth say, Your people shall be my people, but your God, my God. She not only moved from Moab to live in the Land, but also joined herself to the God of Israel, requiring her to come under the Law of Moses. Still she was not called an Israelitess or a Jewess, but a Moabitess.

Biblically, Gentiles who converted to Mosaic, Pharisaic or any other form of Judaism were called proselytes. Ruth was simultaneously a Moabitess by birth, and a proselyte to Mosaic Judaism.

Matthew 23:15: Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you travel around on sea and land to make one proselyte; and when he becomes one, you make him twice as much a son of hell as yourselves. Yeshua did not call Gentile converts to Pharisaic Judaism Jews, but proselytes.

In Acts 13:43, God-fearing Gentile synagogue attendees were not called Jews, but proselytes: Now when the meeting of the synagogue had broken up, many of the Jews and of the God-fearing proselytes followed Paul and Barnabas. Note how the God-fearing proselytes are differentiated from the Jews.

Acts 2:10 names different groups who kept the Mosaic injunction to be in Jerusalem for Pentecost (cf. Exodus 34:18-23), and the same distinction is made: and visitors from Rome, both Jews and proselytes.

In Acts 6:5, a Gentile who had previously converted to Judaism and subsequently became a believer in Yeshua was not called a Jew, but a proselyte: The statement found approval with the whole congregation; and they chose. . . Nicolas, a proselyte from Antioch.

6. Esther 8:17
There is one instance, however, where proselytes (Gentile converts to Judaism) are called Jews in most translations, including many very good translations, such as the New American Standard: And many among the peoples of the land became Jews. . . (Esther 8:17). The same is also true of commentators of the caliber of Keil and Delitzsch: "to confess oneself a Jew, to become a Jew." Some translations, though, do use such expressions as: accepted the Jewish religion (Contemporary English Version), and declared themselves Jews (English Standard Version). The same is true of commentators such as Dr. Charles Ryrie: "embraced the religion of Judaism as proselytes" (Ryrie Study Bible), and Keil and Delitzsch, as above: "to confess oneself a Jew." It is also noteworthy that even in the days of the authorship of Esther (shortly after 465 B.C.E., when the events take place), "Jew" also referred to a descendant of the man Israel: Now there was at the citadel in Susa a Jew whose name was Mordecai, the son of Jair, the son of Shimei, the son of Kish, a Benjamite (Esther 2:5).

So, which is the best translation?

There are two classes of considerations that pull in opposite directions. On the one hand, the root of the Hebrew word mityahadim, translated became Jews in the New American Standard, is yhd, the same root as yehudi or yehudim, which are translated "Jew" and "Jews" respectively. This, of course, pulls in the direction of translating mityahadim as "became Jews." On the other hand, several considerations pull in the direction of translating mityahadim as "became proselytes to Judaism":

1. The plain meaning of the passage is that Gentiles converted to Judaism.
2. Philological considerations, as explained by Dr. Fruchtenbaum:

The verb lehityaheid [the infinitive form of mityahadim, which is a participle] has the same connotation as lehitnatzer. Neither word focuses on a change of ethnic identity, but of religious identity. Lehitnatzer means to convert to Christianity, and lehityaheid means to convert to Judaism. Thus a more correct translation is to convert to Judaism to become proselytes, but it does not mean to become Jews in the sense of an ethnic identity change. (Quote combined from emails to the author.)

3. Among the two hundred and fifty-six times in which "Jew" or "Jews" appear in the New American Standard, Esther 8:17 is the only instance in which proselytes are called Jews. (In our Replacement Theology study, which begins in Shofar 23, we examined those New Testament passages that appear to say otherwise at first glance, and have found that they actually do not.)
4. All of the considerations in the section, "Who Are the Jews?" in Who Is Israel? Who Are the Jews?, including the exclusive use of "Jews" by Yeshua, His disciples and their contemporaries in the sense of bloodline Jews.
5. Yeshua Himself used "Jews" in the context of the very covenants by which God set Israel apart from the nations. He said to the Samaritan woman, Salvation is from the Jews (John 4:22), meaning, not of the Samaritan nation, which had an unauthorized temple on Mt. Gerizim, but of the Jewish nation.

In consideration of these things, this author is persuaded that the clearest, most unequivocal translation of mityahadim is one that focuses on the religious conversion: "converted to Judaism," "became proselytes to Judaism," or a similar rendering. To be accurate according to the sweep of Scripture, "Jews" ought to be reserved for bloodline Israelites, and ought not to be used of Gentile converts to Judaism as is commonly done, of Gentile believers who identify with the messianic community, or of Gentile believers in general, as is done in some circles.


The first biblical use of the word "Hebrew" is in Genesis 14:13, where Abram was called a Hebrew. The next number of times "Hebrew" was used was by Egyptians in reference to Israelites (Genesis 39:14, Exodus 1:16, etc.). Joseph said that he was kidnapped from the land of the Hebrews (Genesis 40:15); Jonah called himself a Hebrew (Jonah 1:9); and God called the Israelites Hebrews (e.g., Exodus 21:2). In Acts 6:1, two Israelite groups are named: Hellenistic Jews against the native Hebrews. In 2 Corinthians 11:22, Paul declares, Are they Hebrews? So am I. Are they Israelites? So am I. Are they descendants of Abraham? So am I. In Philippians 3:5, Paul called himself a Hebrew of the Hebrews.

All those and only those in the covenant line of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob by natural descent are called Hebrews.



Notwithstanding extrabiblical definitions, every man and woman who is a descendant of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob by male lineage is an Israelite, a Jew and a Hebrew; and if a person has a Gentile father and Jewish mother, that person may choose to make a genuine, heart-felt identification with Israel, confirmed by circumcision if male, and then be considered an Israelite. Inversely, no one who does not fit into these categories is an Israelite, Jew or Hebrew even if he be circumcised, a Chassid (adherent to Ultra-Orthodox Judaism) or an adherent to Messianic Judaism. Also, the Jewish nation began forming by natural generation in the days of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and will continue to so form until the end of the Millennium.


"I was born a Jew and I'll die a Jew" is a declaration that is sometimes heard from the lips of Jews when the Gospel is presented to them; yet it is impossible for one who is a descendant of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob to lose one's Jewishness. Thus, when Messianic Jews are accused of rejecting their Jewishness or are said to have somehow been magically transformed into a non-Jew, they, along with every other descendant of the man Israel may say, "I was born a Jew and I'll die a Jew!" - with the understanding, of course, that they will not die at all if the Rapture intervenes while they are alive! Furthermore, if an Israelite Baal worshiper retained his Jewish identity, then surely the Jewish believer in the Jewish Messiah and King of the Jews retains his! Though others consider his identity forfeit, God does not.



Our Statement reads, "Israel. . . is distinct from the body of Messiah."

There are many who believe that the church, the body of Messiah (body of Christ), has become Israel, or has been joined to Israel, or has replaced Israel, or is Israel spiritually or figuratively. It is therefore essential that we examine the substance, parameters and relevant designations of the church just as we have of Israel, and this we will do.


1. "The Body of Messiah"
he body of Messiah" is a biblical designation for the church.
Colossians 1:18: And He is the head of the body, the church. . . .

2. The Body of Messiah Differs from Local Congregations
There have been countless local congregations or churches through the centuries, and any of them might have been comprised solely of believers, solely of non-believers, or a combination of both; but the body of Messiah is different. There is only one body, and it is composed solely of believers, and of all believers, from Pentecost to the Rapture (Romans 7:4; 1 Corinthians 10:16; 1 Corinthians 12:27; Ephesians 4: 4-6,12). Thus, the body of Messiah is also referred to as the universal church. It is also called the invisible church because its total and exact membership, though visible to God, is invisible to men.

3. The Composition of the Body
1 Corinthians 12:13: For by one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whether Jews or Greeks4 whether slaves or free, and we were all made to drink of one Spirit.

The body is composed of Jews and Gentiles made one in Messiah.

4. The Body Is a "New Man"
Ephesians 2:11-15: 11. Therefore remember that formerly you, the Gentiles in the flesh, who are called "Uncircumcision" by the so-called "Circumcision," which is performed in the flesh by human hands - 12. remember that you were at that time separate from Messiah, excluded from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers to the covenants of promise, having no hope and without God in the world. 13. But now in Messiah Yeshua you who formerly were far off have been brought near by the blood of Messiah. 14. For He Himself is our peace, who made both groups into one and broke down the barrier of the dividing wall, 15. by abolishing in His flesh the enmity, which is the Law of commandments contained in ordinances, so that in Himself He might make the two into one new man, thus establishing peace.

According to the passage, believing Jews and believing Gentiles have been brought together in Messiah Yeshua to form one new man.

5. The Body Is Neither Israel Nor the Gentiles
The merging of Jewish and Gentile believers by the blood of Messiah into one new man cannot result in that new man's being either Israel or the Gentiles because each of those groups is composed of both unregenerate and regenerate people. The new man is quantitatively and qualitatively different from either Israel or the Gentiles. It is a completely new and different entity as is brought out unmistakably in 1 Corinthians 10:32: Give no offense either to Jews or to Greeks or to the church of God. Three distinct groups: Jews, Greeks and the church of God.

6. How Were the Gentiles, Who Were Excluded From the Commonwealth of Israel, Brought Near?
The Ephesians 2 passage says that the Gentiles were excluded from the commonwealth of Israel, but were brought near by the blood of Messiah. What does it mean?

This needs to be viewed in the broader context: 12. remember that you were at that time separate from Messiah, excluded from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers to the covenants of promise, having no hope and without God in the world. 13. But now in Messiah Yeshua you who formerly were far off have been brought near by the blood of Messiah.

The central issue of the passage is not that the Gentiles were excluded from the commonwealth [theocratic community] of Israel, but that they were separate from Messiah.

In every age, salvation is only by faith, and this was true in the Dispensation of the Law. It was under the Law that Habakkuk wrote, the righteous will live by his faith (2:4); yet, God provided a code of laws to be followed: the Law of Moses. If a Gentile had genuine faith in the God of Israel, he would become a proselyte to Mosaic Judaism and take upon himself the full burden of the Law, which would require him to live as a Jew would in the commonwealth of Israel: He would worship in Jerusalem on Passover, Pentecost and Tabernacles, bring sacrifices to the temple, et al. Taking on the burden of the Law without faith would not save him (nor would it save an Israelite); but if he had true faith, he would take upon himself the burden of the Law. In the context of the Christian life, James said, But someone may well say, "You have faith and I have works; show me your faith without the works, and I will show you my faith by my works" (2:18). The same principle applied in the days of the Law. The Gentile with true faith in the God of Israel would take upon himself the burden of the Law; but since the cross, joining in the Mosaic activities of the commonwealth of Israel is a dead issue because the Mosaic Law, which constituted the barrier of the dividing wall, was rendered inoperative at the cross. This is the seed thought in what Yeshua said to the Samaritan woman in John 4:21,23: 21. "Woman, believe Me, an hour is coming when neither in this mountain nor in Jerusalem will you worship the Father. . . . 23. "But an hour is coming, and now is, when the true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and truth.

What Paul is saying is that, since the cross, Gentile believers are brought near to the blessings of salvation - not in the commonwealth of Israel - but in Messiah Yeshua and in His body, by virtue of the new birth, For by one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whether Jews or Greeks (1 Corinthians 12:13).

To summarize:
1. The new man is neither Israel nor the Gentiles.
2. Gentile believers are not brought near to the blessings of salvation in the commonwealth of Israel, but in Messiah Yeshua and in the one new man, the body of Messiah, the universal or invisible church.

7. Members of the Body Retain Their National Identities
This was addressed above as regards the Jew, but needs to be addressed here more fully.

The new man is distinct from Israel and the Gentiles, but becoming a member of the new man does not obliterate one's Jewish or Gentile identity. Membership in Israel or in a Gentile nation is based on natural generation. Membership in the new man is based on regeneration, which is of the Spirit. There is no conflict between membership in the two, nor mutual exclusion. The apostle Paul identified himself as being of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of the Hebrews (Philippians 3:5), and he addressed Roman believers as you Gentiles (Romans 11:13).

When passages that seem to say otherwise are scrutinized in their contexts, it is seen that they do not contradict this. For example, when Galatians 3:28 says that there is neither Jew nor Greek, it is simply saying that national distinctions have no bearing on, and do not constitute a fissure within, the unity inherent in the body. Galatians 3:28: There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in Messiah Yeshua. All one in Messiah is the context in which the passage must be understood. In fact, all indicates that there is more than one kind among whom the unity exists.

The body of Messiah is one new man composed of Jews and Gentiles who remain Jews and Gentiles forever (Revelation 21:24,26). Even the ascended Messiah in His glorified, spiritual, heavenly body (cf. 1 Corinthians 15:43,44,48) is called the Lion of the Tribe of Judah (Revelation 5:5).

8. During What Historical Span Is the Body Formed?
a. When Did Its Formation Begin?

The Body of Messiah Began on Shavuot, the Day of Pentecost (Acts 2), as this sequence of points demonstrates:

1) Previous to Yeshua's death, resurrection and ascension, He declared that His church was still future: I will build My church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it (Matthew 16:18). According to Dr. Fruchtenbaum, the statement is constructed in "a tense that cannot be interpreted as referring to a church already in existence."5

2) 1 Corinthians 12:13 indicates that the body was formed when the first believers were baptized by the Holy Spirit: For by one Spirit we are all baptized into one body, whether Jews or Greeks, whether slave or free, even all were made to drink into one Spirit.

By combining the above points we see that Spirit baptism, which initiated the formation of the body of Messiah, was future to Yeshua's declaration prior to His death, resurrection and ascension.

3) After Yeshua's ascension, He commanded His disciples to wait in Jerusalem until they were baptized by the Spirit: Acts 1:1-5: 1. Truly, O Theophilus, I made the first report as to all things that Yeshua began both to do and teach 2. until the day He was taken up, having given directions to the apostles whom He chose, through the Holy Spirit; 3. to whom He also presented Himself living after His suffering by many infallible proofs, being seen by them through forty days, and speaking of the things pertaining to the kingdom of God. 4. And having met with them, He commanded them not to depart from Jerusalem, but to await the promise of the Father which you heard from Me. 5. For John truly baptized with water, but you shall be baptized in the Holy Spirit not many days from now.

Spirit baptism had not yet occurred even at this point in time after Yeshua's ascension. The formation of the body was still future.

John 7:38-39 also declares the futurity of Spirit baptism after Yeshua's ascension. Though Spirit baptism is not specifically mentioned here, it should be clear after our sequence of points that it is included in the giving of the Spirit spoken of here: 38. He who believes on Me, as the Scripture has said, "Out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water." 39. (But He spoke this about the Spirit, which they who believed on Him should receive; for the Holy Spirit was not yet given, because Yeshua was not yet glorified.)

4) The believers were filled with the Holy Spirit on Pentecost. Acts 2:1-4: 1. And when the day of Pentecost was now come, they were all together in one place. 2. And suddenly there came from heaven a sound as of the rushing of a mighty wind, and it filled all the house where they were sitting. 3. And there appeared unto them tongues parting asunder, like as of fire; and it sat upon each one of them. 4. And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance.

The Spirit filled the believers on this first Shavuot after Yeshua's ascension - but were they baptized by the Spirit? The terms are not synonymous. Let's look further.

5) About twelve years subsequent to that Shavuot, the believers in Cornelius' household were baptized by the Spirit.

In Acts 10, Peter was summoned to the home of Cornelius, a Gentile, at which time the Spirit fell on all those hearing the word (v. 44). In Acts 11:15-16, Peter described his experience to the church council in Jerusalem: 15. And as I began to speak, the Holy Spirit fell on them, as on us at the beginning. 16. And I remembered the Word of the Lord, how He said, John indeed baptized with water, but you shall be baptized with the Holy Spirit. Peter's declaration shows that what Cornelius and his household experienced was Spirit baptism.

6) Peter identified the Spirit baptism of Cornelius' household with that which occurred on the first Shavuot after Yeshua's ascension. He said that what happened to them, the Gentiles, was what happened to us [Jews] at the beginning, which he identified with the event prophesied by the Word of the Lord in Acts 1:5: John indeed baptized with water, but you shall be baptized with the Holy Spirit. As Acts 1 is preparatory to Acts 2, we can conclude that the beginning was the events of Acts 2. What happened to Cornelius' household was Spirit baptism. Thus, what happened to the Jews on the first Pentecost after Yeshua's ascension was Spirit baptism.

The body of Messiah, the universal or invisible church, began to form on the first Shavuot or Pentecost after Yeshua's ascension, for that is when believers were first baptized by the Holy Spirit.

b. When Will Its Formation Cease?
Beginning with the Gentile proselytes to Judaism who were baptized by the Spirit along with Jews on the Day of Pentecost (Acts 2:10), God has been calling Gentiles out of the world and adding them to Messiah's body to be a people for His Name (Acts 15:14). This will continue until the fullness of the Gentiles has comes in (Romans 11:25). God will continue adding Jews and Gentiles to the body until the full number of Gentiles that He had foreordained has been reached. When the last Gentile has been added, the body of Messiah will be fully formed.

The body began to be formed on Pentecost, and its formation will cease when the fullness of the Gentiles has comes in.

c. Until When Will the Body Remain On Earth?
Once Messiah's body is fully formed, God will resurrect all deceased members of the body and remove them and all living members from the earth in an event known as the Rapture (1 Corinthians 15:12-57; 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18); and so shall [they] ever be with the Lord (1 Thessalonians 4:17). Only those in Messiah will be included (1 Corinthians 15:18,19,22; 1 Thessalonians 4:16). "In Messiah" ("In Christ") is a designation that is used exclusively of believers in Messiah's body. Old Testament saints (Isaiah 26:19; Daniel 12:2) and deceased Tribulation saints (Revelation 20:4) will be resurrected immediately or very shortly after the Great Tribulation.


Having identified Israel and the body of Messiah, we are now in a position to see that they are distinct entities.


It can readily be seen that the body of Messiah, the universal church, is distinct from Israel for these reasons, and more:

  • Israel has been increasing in numbers from the days of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and will continue to do so until the end of the Millennium. In contrast, the body of Messiah began to form on the Day of Pentecost, and will increase in number only until the Rapture, which is prior to the Millennium. (Those who believe that there is no literal Millennium or that the Rapture will take place subsequent to it still need to reckon with the fact that the beginnings of Israel and the church are separated by 2000 years.)

  • The body is not identical with Israel any more than it is identical with the Gentiles. It is quantitatively and qualitatively a new and different entity pictured figuratively as a new man.

  • Israel is a nation by natural generation, whereas the body of Messiah is a new man by regeneration, which is of the Spirit.

  • No Gentile who joined himself to Israel was ever called an Israelite, but all Jews and Gentiles who join the body of Messiah are called by the same designations: believers, Christians, saints, etc.

  • There were Israelite believers in the promised Messiah before the Day of Pentecost, and there will be new Israelite believers during the Great Tribulation and Millennium. They will all experience the blessings of the Messianic Kingdom (Millennium) and the eternal ages to follow, but they did not or will not live during the Church Age, and cannot be considered part of the church.

  • Israel is pictured as the married, then divorced, and yet to be remarried Wife of Jehovah (Jeremiah 3:1,20; Ezekiel 16:15), whereas the body of Messiah is pictured as the betrothed and yet to be married Bride of Christ. There is no way to join the two metaphors into one.

  • Only a small handful of Israelites under the Dispensation of the Law had the Spirit with them (rare exceptions had Him in them, as well), whereas all believers from Shavuot to the Rapture have the Spirit in them. Furthermore, the Spirit did not always rest on those few Israelites permanently (e.g., 1 Samuel 16:14; Psalm 51:11), whereas the Spirit is said to remain with all members of the body of Messiah forever. The contrasts are three: a few - all; with - in; temporarily - forever. (John 7:37-39; 14:16-17; Numbers 11:17-25; 27:18; 2 Kings 2:9-12; 1 Samuel 16:14; Psalm 51:11).

  • The commonwealth of Israel was destroyed by Rome in the mighty military blows of 70 and 135 A.D., and the modern State of Israel has existed only since 1948, leaving a gap in Israel's political existence of over eighteen hundred years. The church, however, has had an unbroken existence since the Day of Pentecost in 29 A.D.

  • The ancient commonwealth was under Mosaic Law, and the modern State of Israel is not governed by the Mosaic Law, the Law of Messiah (Galatians 6:2), or any other rule of Law for the believer. The church is distinct from the ancient commonwealth in that is not under the Mosaic Law, and is distinct from modern Israel because it is under the Law of Messiah. The body of Messiah, the church, is distinct from both ancient and modern Israel.

  • The deceased in the body will be resurrected at the Rapture, which will take place before the Great Tribulation (1 Thessalonians 5:2-9; 2 Thessalonians 2:8-13, etc.), whereas all Old Testament Israelite and other saints will be resurrected after the Great Tribulation (Isaiah 26:19; Daniel 12:2).

  • The entire body of Messiah will be with the Lord in Heaven during the Great Tribulation (1 Corinthians 15:51-52), but only those Israelites saved between Pentecost and the Rapture will be in Heaven during the Great Tribulation.

  • The entire body of Messiah will spend an eternity in the blessed presence of the Lord, but only a minority from among Israel, a remnant (Isaiah 1:9, 10:22; Romans 9:27), will be saved.


Acts 7:38 refers to Israel under Moses as the church in the wilderness, and 1 Corinthians 10:2 describes it as being baptized (immersed) unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea. If Israel is distinct from the church, why is it called a church here?

According to Smith's Bible Dictionary, "Ecclesia, the Greek word for church, originally meant an assembly called out by the magistrate, or by legitimate authority."

The Greek word translated church simply means an assembly. The "legitimate authority" that called out Israel from among the nations, and the body of believers from the world system, is the same: the Lord. However, the Israelites in the wilderness were an assembly by virtue of natural birth and physical location, and the body of Messiah is an assembly by virtue of the Spirit's call and organization. Sharing the word assembly in no way indicates that they are part of the same group any more than Jehovah's Witnesses and the Jewish Defense League can be considered part of the same group because they can each be called a group. Furthermore, the idea behind baptism is identification. No Israelite needed to be immersed to be identified with Israel or Moses, and they weren't. They were Israelites by birth, and became distinctly identified with the leadership of Moses when they made a clean break from Egypt by passing through the Red Sea. They were not immersed in the Red Sea. They passed through the Red Sea on dry ground. It was the Egyptians who were immersed in the Red Sea (Exodus 14:16-29). The pillar of cloud also identified the Israelites with Moses as it was only they whom the cloud guided and protected, which is illustrated beautifully when the cloud guided the Israelites to the Red Sea, and then moved from in front of them to behind them to shield them from Pharaoh's army (Exodus 13:21-22; 14:19).

Israel and the body of Messiah are on two different tracks in the plan of God with a multitude of differences in the details. They are not one and the same, though there is some overlap. Jewish believers from Shavuot to the Rapture are simultaneously members of Israel and the body of Messiah.


1. The body of Messiah, the church, is not Israel, nor has it been added to Israel. It is distinct from it.
2. Membership in the body does not obliterate one's national identity. Jews remains Jews, Gentiles remain Gentiles.

Like Israel, the church is a chosen, elect people, a people of God, but it is on a different track from Israel in the plan of God. To confound the two identities is to confound the two tracks and make it impossible to rightly divide the Word of truth, breeding confusion upon confusion.


We have seen that the invisible church is distinct from Israel, but what about the visible church?


The visible church is the visible counterpart of the invisible church, and contains it. Whereas the invisible church is composed solely of believers, the visible church is composed of believers and unbelievers. Whereas only God can see the heart and know with perfect accuracy who the members of the invisible church are, even unsaved people can see and hear who attends church and claims to be a believer. Hence, the designation "visible church." Also, as the invisible church had its beginnings on the Day of Pentecost, so did the visible church.


It can be seen that the visible church is distinct from Israel for some of the same or similar reasons that the invisible church is:

  • Israel began with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, but the visible church began two thousand years later at Pentecost.

  • Israel is made up solely of Israelites, but the invisible church is made up of Jews and Gentiles.

  • The Gentile who joined the commonwealth of Israel was never called an Israelite because he wasn't one. Similarly, the visible church, which contains Gentiles, cannot be called Israel or a part of Israel.

  • There has been a gap in Israel's political existence of over eighteen hundred years. The visible church, however, has had an unbroken existence since the Day of Pentecost in A.D. 29.

  • Whereas the ancient commonwealth was under Mosaic Law and the modern State of Israel is not governed by any such system of Law, the visible church differs from both in that it professes to be under of the Law of Messiah.


Scripture does not say that the visible church is identical to Israel or has been united to Israel, and indeed it cannot be for the reasons given. Just as the invisible church and Israel are distinct entities, so the visible church and Israel are distinct entities.

In our next segment, we will examine whether the church has replaced Israel, or may be considered Israel in any spiritual or figurative sense. We'll also discuss the unique case
of those who are Jews and members of the body simultaneously.

* * *



1. Arnold G. Fruchtenbaum, Dr., Genesis, pdf, 241. *
2. Much of the material contained herein has been adapted from the author's study in Shofar 13, "The Universal Body of Messiah." "The Universal Body" also contains relevant information that does not appear here that may further serve to clarify matters.
3. In an email to the author of 11/28/10.
4. Grecians. The term "is, in general, equivalent to. . . Gentiles," International Standard Bible Encyclopedia.
5. Arnold G. Fruchtenbaum, Dr., Messianic Bible Study 097: The Universal Church, pdf, 9.


Materials by Dr. Fruchtenbaum *
- Books

1. The Footsteps of the Messiah
2. Hebrew Christianity: Its Theology, History and Philosophy
3. Israelology: The Missing Link in Systematic Theology
4. Jesus Was a Jew
5. The Messianic Jewish Epistles: Hebrews, James, 1 and 2 Peter, Jude

- Messianic Bible Studies
1. 006: The Law of Moses and the Law of Messiah
2. 007: Jews, Gentiles, Christians.

3. 018: Israel in the Messianic Kingdom
4. 021: The Eight Covenants of the Bible
5. 041: The Dispensations of God
6. 080: The Theology of Israel: A Study of Romans 9-11
7. 087: The Books of Romans and the Jews

8. 115:
The Wife of Jehovah and the Bride of Christ
9. 160: The Day of Pentecost and the Birth of the Church
10. 179: The Church and the Jews
11. 189: The Modern State of Israel and Bible Prophecy
12. 191: The Remnant of Israel: Past, Present and Future

* Dr. Fruchtenbaum's materials are available for purchase at Ariel Ministries in various formats. Some of
his Messianic Bible Studies (mbs) are also available for free online reading at Ariel's Come and See.
Other select materials and resources are available at Ariel, as well.

Materials by Others
Chafer, Dr. Lewis Sperry, Systematic Theology, (Kregel Publications, 1976), selections from volumes IV, VI, VII.

* * *

Norman Manzon, 2010.

Norman Manzon is a Bible teacher in Hawaii
and may be reached at BibleStudyProject@hawaiiantel.net.

More of Norm's studies may be accessed at www.BibleStudyProject.org. *

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