One of the more
famous prophecies within the Book of Daniel is found in
chapter 9, verses 24-27. It is here that God spells out the
timetable dealing with events that will both precede the
Messiah's First Coming and follow it.
Daniel 9:1-23 provides
the introduction to the Seventy Sevens prophecy found in
verses 24-27. The background is given in verses 1-2, where
Daniel states that he had been studying the Book of Jeremiah
as well as some other prophets such as Isaiah. He knew from
the study of these prophets that the Babylonian Captivity
was to be seventy years. He also knew that the seventy years
were nearly up. That much of the prophecy he clearly
understood. What he misunderstood about the prophecies of
Jeremiah, Isaiah, and perhaps others was that he thought the
Messianic or Millennial Kingdom would be set up following
the seventy years of captivity. He also knew from these
prophets that the prerequisite for the setting up of the
Kingdom would be Israel's confession of her sins. Assuming
that the Babylonian Captivity would be immediately followed
by the Kingdom, Daniel prayed a prayer of confession for
Israel's sins in verses 3-19.
In verses 20-23, the angel Gabriel was sent to correct
Daniel's misunderstanding about the setting up of the
Kingdom at the end of the seventy years of captivity.
Gabriel came to reveal to Daniel the program of God that
would bring in the Kingdom. In a play upon words, he
informed Daniel that it was not going to be seventy years,
but seventy sevens of years before the Kingdom would be
For a more comprehensive understanding, this passage will be
broken down phrase by phrase.
I. THE DECREE OF THE SEVENTY
SEVENS - DANIEL 9:24a
One of the
greatest tragedies in biblical interpretation is that the
Hebrew word used here, shavuim, has been translated as
weeks. That interpretation would require the use of the
Hebrew word shavuot. The word
shavuim simply means “seven”
and could refer to seven of anything. The context must be
studied to determine the content. Just as the English word
“dozen” simply means twelve of anything such as a dozen
apples or a dozen eggs. In this context, obviously, it must
be a seven of years, because Daniel has been dealing with
years. He has been counting up the seventy years of the
Babylonian Captivity, assuming that, after seventy years,
the Kingdom was going to be set up. Clearly, Daniel has been
thinking in terms of years. In the Hebrew text, there is a
play upon words. Daniel is told that it is not “seventy
years” but that “seventy sevens of years” must pass before
the introduction of the Kingdom. In this passage, then, it
means seventy sevens of years for a total of 490 years. The
angel is telling Daniel that a 490 year period is decreed
upon the Jewish people.
Another thing to keep in mind is that a year in the
Scriptures is not 365 days, as in our calendar. A year in
the Scriptures is 360 days, with 30 days per month. This can
be seen by comparing Scriptures. For example, by comparing
Genesis 7:11 and 8:4 with Genesis 7:24, a period of five
months is also a period of a hundred and fifty days. Thus,
150 days is the same as five months, with 30 days per month.
What is true historically in the Old Testament is also true
prophetically in the New Testament. For instance, Revelation
12:6 mentions a period of a thousand two hundred and three
score days. While in Revelation 11:2-3 and 13:5, these
thousand two hundred and three score days are the same as
forty and two months. This makes it exactly 360 days to a
year, twelve months to a year, with 30 days per month.
Therefore, the Seventy Sevens is a period of 490 years.
The Hebrew word for decreed means “to cut off” or “to
determine.” Throughout his book, Daniel has been dealing
with the theme of the Times of the Gentiles, the lengthy
period that began with Nebuchadnezzar's destruction of
Jerusalem in 586 B.C. and will end with the close of the
Tribulation and the Second Coming of the Messiah. Daniel was
the prophet who was given lengthy and detailed revelation
concerning the nature of the Times of the Gentiles, and it
was Daniel who revealed that the Times of the Gentiles would
undergo a history of four Gentile empires. In the Seventy
Sevens passage, Daniel is told that a period of 490 years is
decreed or is being cut out of the Times of the Gentiles to
bring about the final restoration of Israel.
One final note concerns the center of the program of the
Seventy Sevens that is decreed upon your people, Daniel's
people, the Jewish people, and upon your holy city,
Jerusalem. The center of the program of the Seventy Sevens
is specifically the Jewish people and the Jewish City of
Jerusalem. A very important thing that must be noted is that
the program of the Seventy Sevens has nothing to do with
God's plan and program for the Church. Rather, the Seventy
Sevens program concerns Israel.
II. THE PURPOSE OF THE SEVENTY
SEVENS - DANIEL 9:24b
transgression, and to make an end of sins, and
to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to
everlasting righteousness, and to seal up the
vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most
The purpose of this 490 year period that God has decreed
upon the Jewish people is for the accomplishment of six
things. The first three things are negative, undesirable
elements that are going to be removed during the program of
the Seventy Sevens. The second three things are positive,
desirable elements, which are to be effected during the
program of the Seventy Sevens. Indeed, the three positive
elements are responses to the three negative elements. For
example, the first negative element is responded to by the
first positive element; purposes one and four go together.
The second negative element is responded to by the second
positive element; purposes two and five go together.
Finally, the third negative element is responded to by the
third positive element; purposes three and six go together,
A. To Finish the Transgression
The first purpose is:
finish transgression. The word to finish is a Hebrew word
that means “to restrain firmly,” “to restrain completely,”
“to bring to completion.” The word transgression is a very
strong word for “sin.” It is a word that literally means “to
rebel.” In the Hebrew text, it has a definite article “the.”
It is not merely to finish transgression, but to finish the
transgression, to finish the rebellion. It refers to one
specific act of rebellion, one specific act of
transgression, to bring it to a finish, to bring it to
completion. The one specific transgression in this context
is the rejection of the Messiahship of Yeshua (Jesus). The
finishing of this one transgression is seen in Isaiah 53:1-9
and Zechariah 12:10-13:1
In this first purpose, sin is to come under control so that
it will no longer flourish; specifically, Israel's sin of
the rejection of the Messiahship of Yeshua. Israel's
national sin is now to be firmly restrained, to be brought
to completion, so that it is no longer true. The same point
is brought out in Isaiah 59:20 and Romans 11:26. The first
purpose, then, is to bring to an end Israel's national
transgression: the rejection of the Messiahship of Jesus.
B. To Make an End of Sins
The second purpose is:
to make an end of sins. The Hebrew word translated
an end means “to seal up” or “to shut up in a prison house,”
“to be securely kept,” “to be locked up,” “to be prevented
from roaming at random.” The Hebrew word for
sins is one
that means, “to miss the mark” and refers to sins in daily
life. Sins, then, would be put to an end or taken away.
It is known, of course, that there will be sins in the
Kingdom. The point of this passage is that, while there may
be sin among the Gentile nations, in the Kingdom there will
be no sin in Israel. This very same truth is taught in
Isaiah 27:9; Ezekiel 36:25-27; 37:23; and Romans 11:27. This
is also the point of the New Covenant in Jeremiah 31:31- 34,
where Jeremiah clearly predicts that the day will come when
all of Israel's sins will be removed and all Israel will be
saved, from the least to the greatest. It will not be
necessary in the Kingdom for one Jew to say to another Jew,
“Know the Lord,” for they will all know Him, from the least
to the greatest.
The second purpose of the Seventy Sevens is to bring an end
to sins in general in daily living in the nation of Israel.
On one hand, He will deal with the one specific
transgression, the rejection of His Messiahship; on the
other hand, sinning daily in Israel will also cease.
C. To Make Reconciliation for
The third purpose of the
Seventy Sevens is: to make reconciliation for iniquity. The
Hebrew word for reconciliation is a word that means, “to
make an atonement.” This is the means by which the first and
second purposes will be accomplished. The means by which
Israel's national sin of rejecting the Messiah will be
removed and the means by which her daily sins will be
removed is by atonement. The word iniquity refers to the sin
nature. The program of the Seventy Sevens is a cleansing of
Israel that will include the removal of all three things:
first, the national sin of rejecting His Messiahship;
secondly, sinning daily; and thirdly, dealing with the sin
D. To Bring in an Age of
The fourth purpose of
the Seventy Sevens is: to bring in everlasting righteousness
or more literally, “to bring in an age of righteousness.”
This is the real meaning of the Hebrew word for
This age of righteousness is called the Messianic Kingdom or
the Millennium. This is the same point made by Isaiah 1:26;
11:2-5; 32:17; Jeremiah 23:5-6; and 33:15-18.
The fourth purpose is to bring in an age of righteousness,
to establish the Kingdom. Daniel thought the Kingdom would
be set up immediately after the seventy years of captivity;
now he is told that this will occur, not after seventy
years, but after seventy sevens of years or 490 years.
E. To Cause a Cessation of
The fifth purpose of the
Seventy Sevens is: to seal up the vision and prophecy. The
Hebrew word for seal up means “to seal up” or “to shut up,”
“to cause a cessation,” “to bring completely to
fulfillment.” The word vision refers to oral prophecy such
as the prophecies of Elijah and Elisha. The word prophecy
refers to prophecy found in written form in the writing
prophets such as Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and in the
twelve Minor Prophets. The fifth purpose of the Seventy
Sevens is to cause a cessation of both oral and written
prophecy, because the program of the Seventy Sevens will
contain the final fulfillment of all prophecies. The
function of all prophecies will cease at the Second Coming
of the Messiah.
Because he is dealing with the Messianic Kingdom, another
question is, “How is it that the Messianic Kingdom will
fulfill all prophecies, since there are things concerning
the time beyond the Kingdom or the Eternal State?” The thing
to remember, however, is that the Eternal State is New
Testament revelation; no Old Testament prophet ever saw
beyond the Kingdom into the Eternal Order. From the
perspective of the Old Testament and in light of the fact
that no prophet ever saw beyond the Messianic Kingdom. When
Daniel speaks about the sealing up of vision and prophecy
with the Kingdom, he means that, insofar as Old Testament
prophecy is concerned, everything will indeed be fulfilled.
F. To Anoint the Most Holy Place
The sixth and final
purpose of the Seventy Sevens reads: to anoint the most
holy. From the Hebrew, it should actually read “to anoint a
most holy place.” It is not a most holy person, but a most
holy place that is to be anointed. The most holy place is
the Temple, not the First Temple of Solomon nor the Second
Temple of Zerubbabel, and certainly not the Third Temple of
the Tribulation. Rather, it is the Fourth Temple, the Temple
of the Messianic Kingdom, built by the Lord Himself. It will
be anointed as part of the program of Seventy Sevens.
III. THE PROGRAM OF THE SEVENTY
SEVENS - DANIEL 9:25-27
A. The Starting Point of the
Seventy Sevens - Daniel 9:25a
Know therefore and
discern, that from the going forth of the commandment to
restore and to build Jerusalem.
As already stated in verse 24, the program of the Seventy
Sevens not only concerns the Jewish people, but also the
Jewish city of Jerusalem. Now Daniel is told that the
Seventy Sevens will begin with a decree, one that involves
the rebuilding of Jerusalem. The question is, “Which decree
is this verse speaking about?” There are four possibilities
1. Four Possibilities
a. The Decree of Cyrus
The first possibility is the decree of Cyrus that was passed
in 538-537 B.C. It is found in II Chronicles 36:22-23; Ezra
1:1-4; and 6:1-5. Insofar as these three passages speak of
it, it concerns the rebuilding of the Temple, but does not
actually mention the rebuilding of the city of Jerusalem.
b. The Decree of Darius Hystapus
The second possibility is the decree of Darius Hystapus
passed in 521 B.C. and spoken of in Ezra 6:6-12. This is a
reaffirmation of the Cyrus decree and also concerns the
rebuilding of the Temple.
c. The Decree of Artaxerxes to Ezra
The third possibility is the decree of Artaxerxes to Ezra
given in 458 B.C. and mentioned in Ezra 7:11-26. In this
decree, permission is given to proceed with the Temple
service, and it concerns only the Temple service.
d. The Decree of Artaxerxes to Nehemiah
The fourth possibility is the decree of Artaxerxes to
Nehemiah that was passed in 444-443 B.C. and spoken of in
Nehemiah 2:1-8. In its context, it is speaking about the
rebuilding of the walls.
2. Two Valid Options
Although all of them in some way or another did contribute
to the building of Jerusalem, only two are valid options:
the first decree and the fourth decree. The first decree is
the decree of Cyrus; the fourth decree is the decree of
Artaxerxes to Nehemiah.
a. The Decree of Artaxerxes to Nehemiah
Most evangelical scholars today believe that the decree of
which Daniel is speaking is the decree of Artaxerxes to
Nehemiah. This was first popularized by Sir Robert Anderson,
who wrote a book called “The Coming Prince.” Using a
formula, he figured out carefully by counting off the number
of years beginning with the decree of Artaxerxes to Nehemiah
and terminating the 483 year period to the coming of the
Messiah with the Triumphal Entry in A.D. 32. According to
Sir Robert Anderson, this period stretched from March 14,
445 B.C. until April 6, A.D. 32.
However, Sir Robert Anderson made a few miscalculations. In
light of the time of the Passover occurrences, it was
impossible for the Crucifixion to have occurred in A.D. 32.
Insofar as when the Passover occurred, there are only two
options in that time span, and these would be A.D. 30 and
33. Later, Dr. Harold Horner wrote a book that corrected Sir
Robert Anderson's miscalculations, and he, too, begins with
the decree of Artaxerxes to Nehemiah, beginning with March
4, 444 B.C. and terminating also with the Triumphal Entry on
March 29, A.D. 33.
There are three problems with taking the decree found in
Nehemiah to be the starting point. The first problem is that
nothing in the Daniel passage requires the first sixty nine
sevens to end with the Triumphal Entry. It only requires the
period to end with the appearance of the Messiah at the
First Coming. It is preferable to terminate the first sixty
nine sevens with the birth of the Messiah rather than the
Triumphal Entry. The second problem with the Artaxerxes-to-Nehemiah
decree is that it is not really a decree. If Nehemiah 2:1-8
is read carefully, there is no decree. Instead, it only
grants permission for Nehemiah to rebuild the walls.
Building on the second problem, the third problem is that
rebuilding the walls is not exactly the same as actually
rebuilding the city.
b. The Decree of Cyrus
There are five reasons validating the view that the decree
of which Daniel is speaking is the decree of Cyrus. The
first reason is that this is a real decree; it is actually
in the form of a decree.
The second reason is that this is the one given the same
year as the vision of the Seventy Sevens. The year Daniel
received the Seventy Sevens vision was the same year that
Cyrus passed his decree.
The third reason is that this is the decree that is
emphasized in Scripture. It was spoken of prophetically by
Isaiah about 150 years before it happened (Is. 44:28-45:1,
13). In fact, Isaiah actually named Cyrus as the person who
would issue this decree at least 150 years before it ever
occurred. His prophecy is recorded in fulfillment four
times: II Chronicles 36:22-23; Ezra 1:1-4; 6:1-5; and
6:6-12. This is clearly the decree that is emphasized in
The fourth reason is that the decree of Cyrus did include
the rebuilding of the city. It is true that the four
passages mentioned earlier did not actually mention the
rebuilding of the city, only the rebuilding of the Temple.
However, if Isaiah's prophecies are taken literally, it
would have included the rebuilding of the city. For example,
Isaiah 44:28 and 45:13 clearly mentions that Cyrus would not
only allow the Temple to be rebuilt, he would also allow the
city to be rebuilt. Of course, it is silly to think Cyrus
would allow the Temple to be rebuilt and then forbid anyone
to live anywhere near the Temple by not allowing the city to
be rebuilt as well.
The fifth reason that the Cyrus decree is the one of which
Daniel speaks is because it is clear from parallel passages
that the Jews did rebuild the city. In fact, they rebuilt
the city before Nehemiah ever came to rebuild the walls. In
Haggai 1:2-4, the Jews were already living in private homes
in Jerusalem seventy years before Nehemiah arrived, even
though the Temple itself had not as yet been rebuilt.
Certainly they would not dare to rebuild Jerusalem if they
did not have permission to do so. According to Ezra 4:12,
the city was being built even in Ezra's day, and he preceded
the time of Nehemiah.
It is not possible within the scope of this manuscript to
deal with the details and problems of Persian chronology.
For those interested in these details, a highly recommended
work is by Dr. David L. Cooper titled, “The Seventy Weeks of
Daniel.” Dr. Cooper shows how the Seventy Sevens can begin
with the decree of Cyrus and it still works out to the time
of the birth of the Messiah. Thus, the first 483 years–the
first sixty nine sevens–terminated with the birth of Yeshua.
B. The First Sixty-Nine Sevens -
unto the anointed one,
the prince, shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two
it shall be built again, with street and moat, even
in troublous times.
The program of the
Seventy Sevens is then subdivided into three units: seven
sevens, sixty two sevens, and one seven. The first sixty
nine sevens is a combination of the first two subdivisions:
the seven sevens and the sixty two sevens.
1. The Seven Sevens or Forty-Nine
The first subdivision is
seven weeks or seven sevens, which is a total of forty nine
years. This refers to the forty-nine year period that it
took to rebuild Jerusalem. In regard to the rebuilding of
Jerusalem, it speaks of the city as being
built again, with
street and moat, even in troublous times. The first
subdivision of the Seventy Sevens, then, is the seven sevens
or forty-nine years during which time Jerusalem was rebuilt.
Only after forty-nine years was the rebuilding process
brought to completion.
2. The Sixty-Two Sevens or Four
Hundred Thirty-Four Years
The second subdivision
of the Seventy Sevens is threescore and two weeks or
sixty-two sevens, comprising a total of 434 years. Insofar
as this passage is concerned, there was no break between the
first and the second subdivisions of the Seventy Sevens. The
sixty-two sevens immediately followed the seven sevens, or
the 434 years immediately followed the forty-nine years.
Combining seven sevens and sixty-two sevens gives a total of
sixty-nine sevens; or combining forty-nine years with 434
years gives a total of 483 years. A total of 483 years will
transpire from the time that the decree is issued until the
coming of the Messiah, the prince. Hence, the first 483
years of the 490-year period comes to an end with the First
Coming of the Messiah.
The expression: unto the anointed one, the prince, does not
point towards a Triumphal Entry but only points toward His
appearance. Thus, the reference is to His birth, not to His
Triumphal Entry. From the decree to rebuild Jerusalem to the
birth of Yeshua would be a total of 483 years. Regardless of
whether you take the decree to be that of Cyrus or the
decree of Artaxerxes to Nehemiah, the first sixty nine
sevens must come to a completion before the year A.D. 70.
C. The Events Between the
Sixty-Ninth and the Seventieth Sevens - Daniel 9:26
And after the threescore
and two weeks shall the anointed one be cut off, and shall
have nothing: and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy
the city and the sanctuary; and the end
thereof shall be with a flood, and even unto the end shall
be war; desolations are determined.
After stating exactly how many years would transpire before
the First Coming in verse 25, Daniel is now told of events
coming between the sixty ninth seven and the seventieth
1. The Messiah Would Be Killed -
And after the threescore
and two weeks shall the anointed one be cut off, and shall
While there was no gap of time between the first and second
subdivisions of the Seventy Sevens, there is a gap of time
between the second and third subdivisions. Notice how verse
26a begins: And after the threescore and two 
after the second subdivision, certain things must occur
before the third subdivision begins in verse 27. When he
says, “after the sixty-two sevens,” he means after the
conclusion of the second subdivision of the Seventy Sevens
and before the beginning of the third subdivision. This
phrase clearly shows that a gap of time exists between the
second and third subdivisions, that is, between the
sixty-ninth seven and the seventieth seven. In this gap of
time, three events are to occur.
First, the Messiah would be cut off, and shall have nothing.
The expression be cut off means “to be killed.” This
occurred in A.D. 30, approximately thirty five years after
the birth of Jesus. Furthermore, it says:
and shall have
nothing. The noun may mean “nothingness” to explain His
state at death or the Hebrew term may also mean “but not for
Himself,” meaning He did not die for Himself, but for
others. That is probably the intent of the passage. The
first thing that is to happen in this gap of time between
the sixty-ninth seven and the seventieth seven is that the
Messiah would be killed, not for Himself, but for others.
2. The Destruction of Jerusalem
and the Temple - Daniel 9:26b
the people of the prince
that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary;
and the end thereof shall be with a flood.
In the Hebrew text, the word people has a definite article;
it is the people, a specific people, who are the subject of
the action. In other words, it is not
the prince that shall
come who will destroy the city and the Temple, but rather,
the people of the prince that shall come. The point of verse
26b is that the nationality of the people and the
that shall come are one and the same.
The prince that shall
come in this context is the Antichrist of whom Daniel has
already spoken in chapters 7 and 8. By saying
Daniel uses the article of previous reference, because he
has spoken of him in the previous chapters.
The prince that
shall come, which is still future, is of the same
nationality as the people who will destroy the city and the
Temple. After the Messiah is cut off, the city and the
Temple will be destroyed.
This occurred in A.D.
70, forty years after the death of the Messiah. It is known
from history who the people are. The people who destroyed
the city and the Temple in A.D. 70 were the Gentiles of
Rome, the Romans. Since the Antichrist must be of the same
nationality as the people who destroyed the city and the
Temple, it is revealed in this verse that the Antichrist
will be a Gentile of Roman origin. It has often been taught
that the Antichrist will be a Jew, but the teaching of the
Word of God is that the Antichrist will be a Gentile of
Then he says: and the end thereof shall be with a flood,
meaning that the end of Jerusalem and the Temple shall be
the result of a flood. Whenever the figure of
a flood is
used symbolically, it always refers to a military invasion.
Jerusalem was destroyed by a Roman military invasion, first
under Vespasian and then under Titus.
3. Continuing War - Daniel 9:26c
even unto the end shall
be war; desolations are determined.
For the remainder of the interval before the start of the
seventieth seven, the Land will be characterized by war.
This has certainly been true throughout the history of the
Middle East. As a result of the wars,
determined, a reference to the state of the Land as
determined or decreed by God.
D. The Seventieth Seven, The Great
Tribulation - Daniel 9:27
And he shall make a firm
covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the
week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation
to cease; and upon the wing of abominations shall come one that makes
desolate; and even unto the full end,
and that determined,
shall wrath be poured out upon the desolate.
The seventieth seven, last seven, is the same as the seven
years of the Great Tribulation. These seven years are
subdivided in this verse into two equal halves of 3 years
each. Elsewhere in Daniel and in Revelation, they are given
different descriptive terms. Each half is referred to in
three different ways: sometimes as “1,260 days” (Rev. 12:6);
sometimes as “forty two months” (Rev. 11:2-3; 13:5); and
sometimes as a time, times and half a time (Dan. 7:25). In
all three cases, they are equal to two 3 1/2 year periods
comprising this seven year period.
The starting point of the first subdivision of seven sevens
was the decree to rebuild Jerusalem. Since the second
subdivision of sixty two sevens immediately followed the
first subdivision, there was no need for a sign that
signaled the beginning of the second subdivision. And since
that left a gap of time between the record and the third
subdivision, it was necessary to provide a sign that will
inaugurate the third subdivision.
1. The Firm Covenant - Daniel
And he shall make a firm
covenant with many for one week.
The starting point of the seventieth seven is when
a firm covenant. The pronoun he in verse 27 goes back to its
nearest antecedent: the prince that shall come in verse 26.
The he who makes a covenant in verse 27 and the prince that
shall come are one and the same person, better known in
evangelical circles as the Antichrist.
The prince that shall
come, or the Antichrist, will make a
firm covenant. He will
make it firm; he will make it strong. The Hebrew word does
not mean “to renew an existing covenant” or “to make an
original one containing strong guarantees. Exactly what it
will guarantee will be made clear in the next section.
The starting point of the seventieth seven of Daniel, the
Great Tribulation, is the signing of a seven year covenant.
It will not be the Rapture that will begin the Tribulation.
The Rapture will come some time before the Tribulation
starts. It may come just before or it may come ten, twenty,
thirty years or more before the Tribulation starts. While
the Bible teaches that the Rapture will precede the
Tribulation, it never says that the Rapture begins the
Tribulation. Rather, the event that begins the Tribulation
is the signing of the seven year covenant.
Furthermore, it says that the covenant is made
with many; it
is not made with all, but with many. The Hebrew text uses a
definite article meaning “the many.” This is the leadership
of Israel who will be empowered to sign covenants of this
nature. The covenant is made for one seven. On one hand, the
signing of the covenant begins the seven years of the
Tribulation, but on the other hand, it is also signed for
the specific purpose of being in effect for seven years.
2. The Cessation of the
Sacrificial System - Daniel 9:27b
in the midst of the week
he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease.
the middle of the seventieth seven:
he shall cause the
sacrifice and the oblation to cease. After the first 3 1/2
years, the covenant will be broken; when it is broken, there
will be a forced cessation of the sacrificial system. This
same point is made in Revelation 11:1-2.
3. Idol Worship - Daniel 9:27c
upon the wing of
abominations shall come one that makes desolate.
wing refers to
the pinnacle of the Temple, and it is a Hebrew word that
means “an overspreading influence.” This overspreading
influence will be upon the pinnacle of the Temple. This
specifically refers to the worship of the Antichrist, when
he declares himself to be the one true god (II Thes. 2:3-4).
The word abominations in Hebrew refers to “an image” or
“idol,” meaning that an image or idol of the Antichrist will
be set up in the Temple Compound on the pinnacle of the
Temple itself. In other words, upon the overspreading
influence of idol worship shall come one that makes
desolate. The one that makes desolate is the Antichrist, who
will cause desolations to fall upon the Jewish people. This
is also spoken of in Daniel 12:11 and Matthew 24:15. The
image itself is spoken in Revelation 13:14-15.
4. The Completion of the
Tribulation - Daniel 9:27d
even unto the full end,
and that determined, shall wrath be poured out upon the
even unto the full end is a Hebrew word that
means “to finish” or “to complete.” To the end, to the
finish, to the completion of the seventieth seven these
desolations are determined. The word
determined means “to be
decreed beforehand,” because the events spelled out in
Daniel 9:27 were already prophesied and decreed long before
the Tribulation. This is seen in Isaiah 10:23 and 28:22.
The phrase also means that the Tribulation will not go a
single day beyond its predetermined duration. It will end on
the exact day. The same point is made in Matthew 24:22,
where it reads: And except those days had been shortened
more literally, except those days had been cut short,
flesh would have been saved: but for the elect's sake those
days shall be shortened. Not that the Tribulation will last
less than seven years, rather, that it will not be allowed
to last a single day beyond its allotted time of exactly
seven years, and no more.
In the last phrase, the word translated
desolate can also be
translated as “a desolator.” If taken to mean desolate, it
refers to the Jewish people during the second half of the
Tribulation, when wrath is poured out upon the desolate. If
it refers to a desolator, it refers to the Antichrist and to
his destruction at the Second Coming on the very last day of
the seventieth seven.
It would be helpful to paraphrase this last verse to bring
out its full meaning as the various phrases have been broken
down. The first paraphrase is: “He shall cause to prevail a
covenant with the many for one seven, and in the middle of
the seven, he shall cause the sacrifice and the offering to
cease; and upon the wing of the detestable things
desolating, even unto the consummation and that determined
shall wrath be poured out on the desolate.”
A second paraphrase would be as follows: “The Antichrist
will cause sacrifice and offering to cease, and in their
place he shall erect, even unto the end, causing an
overspreading influence, a detestable statue in the Temple
desolating in effect for the duration of the 3 1/2 year
period in view. All the desolating activity God has
determined beforehand will
be poured out, making it desolate.”
All scriptures are in the
American Standard Version unless otherwise noted.
enjoyed this Bible study, Dr. Fruchtenbaum
recommends the following messianic Bible studies
mbs 011: The Suffering Messiah of Isaiah 53
mbs 012: The Messiah of the Old Testament
mbs 013: What the New Testament Says About Jesus
mbs 014: Why Did the Messiah Have to Die?
mbs 025: Jesus' Right to David's Throne
mbs 028: The Olivet Discourse
mbs 032: The Baptism and Temptations of Jesus
mbs 035: The Three Messianic Miracles
mbs 036: The Three Sabbath Controversies Between Jesus and
mbs 044: The Transfiguration of Jesus
mbs 052: The Names and Titles of the Messiah
mbs 054: The Incarnation
mbs 056: The Triumphal Entry
mbs 060: The Upper Room Discourses
mbs 062: The Feasts of Israel
mbs 063: The Deity of the Messiah
mbs 065: The Servant of Jehovah
mbs 070: The Death and Burial of the Messiah
mbs 075: The Resurrection of the Messiah
mbs 078: The Present Work of the Messiah
mbs 094: The Sermon on the Mount
mbs 127: The Birth and Early Life of the Messiah
mbs 133: The Lordship of the Messiah
Also the Ariel Ministries' series on Christology by Dr. Fruchtenbaum