CHRISTOLOGY: THE DOCTRINE OF MESSIAH
by Dr. Arnold G. Fruchtenbaum
Before Abraham was born, I
am ~ John 8:58
I am the way, and the
truth, and the life: no one cometh unto the Father, but by me
~ John 14:6
He that hath seen me hath
seen the Father ~ John 14:9
Few doctrines can be
considered more fundamental than the nature, character and works of Messiah;
and few teachers are able to convey such truths with the
thoroughness, detail, accuracy, clarity and fluidity that so characterizes Dr. Fruchtenbaum. So fasten your seatbelts, and let's begin! - ed.
Study 1: Ariel Ministries' Messianic Bible Study # 012:
THE MESSIAH OF THE OLD TESTAMENT
by Dr. Arnold G. Fruchtenbaum
© 1983, 2005 Ariel Ministries. All
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special permission of Ariel Ministries.
Therefore the Lord himself
will give you a sign: behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son,
and shall call his name Immanuel.
~ Isaiah 7:14 ~
If the Old Testament only spoke
of the Messiah in terms of His suffering, it would hardly give us enough to
go on, but there is much more to the Old Testament picture of the Messiah
than that which is found in Isaiah 53. In other passages, there is often
less conflict, if any at all, than the conflict over Isaiah 53. These other
passages, taken along with Isaiah 53, go a long way to show how the Messiah
was to be a thoroughly unique Person.
I. THE UNIQUENESS OF HIS BIRTH
A. Genesis 3:15
Following the account of the Creation, the Old Testament continues with the
story of Adam and Eve. In the guise of a serpent, Satan deceives Eve and
causes her to break the one commandment of God. Adam follows suit. The
result is that sin enters the human family and the human experience. Man now stands under the righteous judgment of God.
Nevertheless, at the time of the Fall, God provides for future redemption.
As He addresses Satan, God says in Genesis 3:15: I
will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your seed and her
seed: he shall bruise your head, and you shall bruise his heel.
The key note of this verse is the statement: seed
of the woman. In and of itself, this statement may not seem unusual, but in
the context of biblical teaching, it is most unusual. Throughout the Hebrew
Scriptures, lineage was never reckoned after the woman, but only after the
man. In all the genealogies we have in the biblical record, women are
virtually ignored because they are unimportant in determining genealogy. Yet
the future Person who would crush Satan’s head, while only suffering a
slight wound Himself, would not be reckoned after a man, but after a woman.
In the biblical pattern, this is highly unusual. In spite of the normal
biblical pattern, we have a clear statement that the future Redeemer comes
from the “seed of the woman.” His birth will take into account His mother only. For a reason that is not explained
here, the father will not be taken into account at all. Yet this goes
totally contrary to the whole biblical view regarding genealogies. That this
verse was taken to be messianic is clear from the “Targums of Jonathan” and
the “Jerusalem Targums.” Furthermore, the Talmudic expression, “Heels of the
Messiah,” seems to have been taken from this verse. But Genesis itself does
not explain how or why this Redeemer can be labeled “seed of the woman” when
it goes contrary to the biblical pattern.
B. Isaiah 7:14
Centuries later, Israel had a great prophet in the person of Isaiah. It was
left to this prophet to explain the meaning and reason why the Messiah would
be reckoned only after the seed of the woman. Isaiah writes in Isaiah 7:14:
Therefore the Lord himself will give you a sign:
behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name
The very fact that the birth of the Person spoken of in this passage is
described as a sign points to some
unusual circumstance regarding the birth. In other words, the birth could
not be normal, for that would not fulfill the requirement of the word
sign. It had to be unusual in some way,
perhaps miraculous or, at least, attention-getting.
The very existence of the Jewish people is derived from a
sign of a birth. The Scriptures make it
clear that both Abraham and Sarah were beyond the point of being able to
bear children; Abraham was ninety-nine years old, and Sarah, eighty-nine.
She had, of course, already undergone menopause when, in Genesis 18, God
promised that Sarah would have a son within one year! This would be the
sign that God will keep his covenant
with Abraham and will make a great nation from him. A year later, this
sign took place with the birth of Isaac,
through whom the Jewish people came. It was the
sign needed to authenticate the covenant. This was a miraculous
The birth of the son in Isaiah 7:14 was
also to be a sign, to be unusual in some way. But this time, the unusual
nature of the birth was not going to be due to the great age of the mother.
It would be a sign by virtue of the fact
that this son would be born of a
Right at this point, another conflict often ensues. Rabbi’s today claim that
the Hebrew word almah does not mean
“virgin,” but “young woman.” But what they fail to explain is how this would
be used as a sign. A young woman giving
birth to a baby is hardly unusual, in fact, it happens all the time!
In other passages where this word is used, almah
clearly means “virgin.” It is used in six other places in the Old Testament
outside of Isaiah 7:14. In all six other places, no one argues that the word
means a “virgin.” If it means a “virgin” in those six other passages, there
is no way it could mean a “non-virgin” in Isaiah 7:14.
About 250 B.C., seventy Jewish rabbis translated the Greek version of the
Old Testament, called the Septuagint.
These seventy rabbis all made almah to read parthenos, which is the simple
Greek word for “virgin.”
Even if almah is allowed to mean “young
woman,” it still must be admitted that the word can refer to a “virginal
young woman.” It must not be ignored that this birth was to be a sign, an
unusual birth. This is best seen if taken to mean a “virgin birth.”
This, then, is the explanation of the mystery of Genesis 3:15. The Messiah
would be reckoned after the seed of a woman because He would not have a
human father. Because of a Virgin Birth, His lineage could be traced only
through His mother and not His father. Thus, Isaiah 7:14 clarifies the
meaning of Genesis 3:15: the Messiah will enter the world by means of a
II. THE PLACE OF HIS BIRTH
Not only was the means of the Messiah’s birth prophesied, but also the place
of His birth was prophesied. This was done by the Prophet Micah, a
contemporary of Isaiah. In chapter 5 of his book, we read in verse 2:
But you, Beth-lehem Ephrathah, which are little to
be among the thousands of Judah, out of you shall one come forth unto me that is to be
ruler in Israel; whose goings forth are from of old, from everlasting.
Concerning this verse, there is far less disagreement among Orthodox rabbis,
since they generally take this to mean that the Messiah will originate from
Bethlehem. This is the view taken by “The Soncino Books of the Bible,” which
is the Orthodox Jewish commentary on the Old Testament and which takes as its source some earlier Jewish
III. THE LINEAGE OF THE MESSIAH
Another point that is uncontested is that the Messiah would be a descendant
of King David. From this comes the rabbinical ascription of the title,
“Messiah, the Son of David.”
Of the numerous passages that might be cited, we will limit ourselves to the
following two, both from Isaiah. The first passage is Isaiah 11:1:
And there shall come forth a shoot out of the stock
of Jesse, and a branch out of his roots shall bear fruit.
And the second passage is Isaiah 11:10: And it
shall come to pass in that day, that the root of Jesse, that stands for an
ensign of the peoples, unto him shall the nations seek; and his
resting-place shall be glorious.
Jesse was the father of David, thus, these passages show that the Messiah
will come from the House of David. To this, all Orthodox Judaism agrees.
Other passages regarding this same point will be cited later in a different
IV. THE SUFFERINGS OF THE MESSIAH
A. Isaiah 53
That the Messiah will suffer and die was something upon which all early
rabbis agreed. They referred to the Suffering Messiah as “Messiah, the Son
of Joseph,” making Him distinct from Messiah, the Son of David. The central
passage, which supports this view, is Isaiah 53.
B. Psalm 22:1-21
This is another passage dealing with the suffering of the Messiah.
|My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?
Why are you so far from helping me, and from the words of my groaning?
O my God, I cry in the daytime, but you answer not; And in the night
season, and am not silent. But you are holy, O you that inhabit the
praises of Israel. Our fathers trusted in you: They trusted, and you
did deliver them. They cried unto you, and were delivered: They
trusted in you, and were not put to shame. But I am a worm, and no
man; A reproach of men, and despised of the people. All they that see
me laugh me to scorn: They shoot out the lip, they shake the head,
saying, Commit yourself unto Jehovah; Let him deliver him: Let him
rescue him, seeing he delights in him. But you are he that took me out
of the womb; You did make me trust when I was upon my mother’s
breasts. I was cast upon you from the womb; You are my God
since my mother bare me. Be not far from me; For trouble is near; For
there is none to help. Many bulls have compassed me; Strong bulls of
Bashan have beset me round. They gape upon me with their mouth. As a
ravening and a roaring lion. I am poured out like water And all my
bones are out of joint: My heart is like wax; It is melted within me.
My strength is dried up like a potsherd; And my tongue cleaves to my
jaws; And you have brought me into the dust of death. For dogs have
compassed me: A company of evil-doers have inclosed me; They pierced
my hands and my feet. I may count all my bones; They look and stare
upon me. They part my garments among them, And upon my vesture do they
cast lots. But be not you far off, O Jehovah: O you my succor, haste
you to help me. Deliver my soul from the sword, My darling from the
power of the dog. Save me from the lion’s mouth; Yea, from the horns
of the wild-oxen you have answered me.
To summarize this passage, we find that the Messiah is forsaken by God; is
ridiculed and tormented by the people; and His clothes are gambled away by
His tormentors. He suffers such agony that all His bones come
out of joint; His
heart breaks with a mixture of blood and water; and His
hands and feet
are pierced. In many ways, this Psalm is
very similar to Isaiah 53, providing even more detail as to the type of
suffering and agony that the Messiah must undergo. The rabbis in the
Yalkut also understood this passage to
refer to Messiah, the Son of Joseph.
V. THE KINGSHIP OF THE MESSIAH
In all the passages discussed so far, the Messiah was portrayed as a man,
but as a man of sorrows; He was to
suffer and die. The earlier rabbis all recognized that these passages speak
of the Messiah and called Him Messiah, the Son of Joseph. For as Joseph the
Patriarch suffered at the hands of his brethren, the Messiah would also suffer.
But other Old Testament passages speak of another kind of Messiah: not a
sufferer, but a conqueror; not a dying Messiah, but a reigning One. This One
was called “Messiah, the Son of David” by the rabbis. Most of what is said
about the Messiah in Moses and the Prophets revolves around the Messiah’s coming to bring peace and to establish the
Messianic Kingdom in Israel.
There are far too many such passages to even begin to list them here, but
two such passages will be quoted in full. It should be noted how differently
this Messiah is portrayed in comparison with all the previous passages thus
far discussed. It is little wonder that the early rabbis were confused and
so devised the Theory of the Two Messiahs, with each Messiah coming only
A. Isaiah 11:1-10
|And there shall come forth a shoot out of
the stock of Jesse, and a branch out of his roots shall bear fruit.
And the Spirit of Jehovah shall rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom
and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of
knowledge and of the fear of Jehovah. And his delight shall be in the
fear of Jehovah; and he shall not judge after the sight of his eyes,
neither decide after the hearing of his ears; but with righteousness
shall he judge the poor, and decide with equity for the meek of the
earth; and he shall smite the earth with the rod of his mouth; and
with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked. And
righteousness shall be the girdle of his waist, and faithfulness the
girdle of his loins. And the wolf shall dwell with the lamb, and the
leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and the young lion
and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them. And the
cow and the bear shall feed; their young ones shall lie down together;
and the lion shall eat straw like the ox. And the sucking child shall
play on the hole of the asp, and the weaned child shall put his hand
on the adder’s den. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy
mountain; for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of Jehovah, as
the waters cover the sea. And it shall come to pass in that day, that
the root of Jesse, that stands for an ensign of the peoples, unto him
shall the nations seek; and his resting-place shall be glorious.
Both the ancient and modern rabbis agree that this passage speaks of the
Messiah and the Messianic Age. But unlike the previous passages, there is no
picture of a dying Messiah being rebuked and despised by His people. The
picture we get here is of a reigning Messiah who brings peace and prosperity to the entire world; peace extends down to the
animal kingdom; the wicked are removed in judgment; and differences between
the nations are settled by the Messiah’s authoritative word. The knowledge
of the God of Israel spreads until it covers the entire world. Now that the
reigning Messiah has brought peace and prosperity to it, the whole world has
an intimate knowledge of the God who created it.
B. Psalm 72:1-19
This is a second passage, which gives the same picture.
|Give the king your judgments, O God, And
your righteousness unto the king’s son. He will judge your people with
righteousness, And your poor with justice. The mountains shall bring
peace to the people, And the hills, in righteousness. He will judge
the poor of the people He will save the children of the needy, And
will break in pieces the oppressor. They shall fear you while the sun
endures, And so long as the moon, throughout all generations. He will
come down like rain upon the mown
grass, As showers that water the earth. In his days shall the
righteous flourish, And abundance of peace, till the moon be no more.
He shall have dominion also from sea to sea, And from the River unto
the ends of the earth. They that dwell in the wilderness shall bow
before him; And his enemies shall lick the dust. The kings of Tarshish
and of the isles shall render tribute: The kings of Sheba and Seba
shall offer gifts. Yea, all kings shall fall down before him; All
nations shall serve him. For he will deliver the needy when he crieth,
And the poor, that has no helper. He will have pity on the poor and
needy, And the souls of the needy he will save. He will redeem their
soul from oppression and violence; And precious will their blood be in
his sight: And they shall live; and to him shall be given of the gold
of Sheba: And men shall pray for him continually; They shall bless him
all the day long. There shall be abundance of grain in the earth upon
the top of the mountains; The fruit thereof shall shake like Lebanon:
And they of the city shall flourish like grass of the earth. His name
shall endure for ever; His name shall be continued as long as the sun:
And men shall be blessed in him; All nations shall call him happy.
Blessed be Jehovah God, the God of Israel, Who only does wondrous
things: And blessed be his glorious name for ever; And let the whole
earth be filled with his glory. Amen, and Amen.
This Psalm is applied as speaking of the righteous reign of the Messiah in
the Talmud. The Targums make the first verse to read as follows: “Give the
sentence of your judgment to the King Messiah, and your justice to the son
of David the King.”
The Midrash on the Psalms follows suit and connects this Psalm with Isaiah
11:1, which was quoted previously. Furthermore, among the many different
names given to the Messiah by the rabbis of the Talmud, the name
Yinnon was taken from the Hebrew
rendering of verse 17 in this very Psalm. So this passage also presents a
different view of the Messiah than the others discussed earlier in this
This, then, is a twofold picture presenting a major problem to anyone trying
to formulate what the Old Testament has to say about the Messiah.
VI. OTHER ASPECTS OF THE PERSON OF THE MESSIAH
Other passages that deal with the kingship of the Messiah give us two other
aspects of the Person of the Messiah. One of these is the Sonship of the
Messiah with God, and the other involves the God-Man Concept. In order to
get a complete picture of the Old Testament’s concept of the Messiah, it is
necessary to discuss these two points, which we will touch on briefly.
A. The Sonship of the Messiah with God
Two passages make the point that the Messiah is also, in some way, the Son
1. Psalm 2
The first of these is Psalm 2, which deals primarily with the Kingship of
the Messiah, but which also brings out the Messiah’s Sonship with God. The
twelve verses of the Psalm read as follows:
|Why do the nations [Gentiles] rage, And
the peoples meditate a vain thing? The kings of the earth set
themselves, And the rulers take counsel together, Against Jehovah, and
against his anointed [Messiah], saying, Let us break their bonds
asunder, And cast away their cords from us. He that sits in the
heavens will laugh: The Lord will have them in derision. Then will he
speak unto them in his wrath, And vex them in his sore displeasure:
Yet I have set my king Upon my holy hill of Zion. I will tell of the
decree: Jehovah said unto me, You are my son; This day have I begotten
you. Ask of me, and I will give you the nations for your inheritance,
And the uttermost parts of the earth for your possession. You shall
break them with a rod of iron; You shall dash them in pieces like a
potter’s vessel. Now therefore be wise, O ye kings: Be instructed, ye
judges of the earth. Serve Jehovah with fear, And rejoice with
trembling. Kiss the son, lest he be angry, and ye perish in the way,
For his wrath will soon be kindled. Blessed are all they that take
refuge in him.
Concerning this Psalm, Rashi admits, “Our rabbis expound it as relating to
King Messiah.” Although the majority of rabbis in earlier years also
expounded this Psalm as referring to King Messiah, many rabbis today would
refer it to David rather than the Messiah. But the words of the Psalm and a
comparison of history would exclude David as a possibility altogether.
In this passage, God tells the Person to whom He is speaking that He is
turning over the dominion and the authority of the whole world to Him (v.
8). History makes it very clear that David never had that dominion, nor was
he ever able to exercise such authority. Hence, David must be excluded.
Thus, the early rabbis were correct in interpreting this Psalm to speak of
the Messiah who, in this Psalm, is referred to as the Son of God.
Also in this same Psalm, God warns that all must submit to the Son of God,
the Messiah. Those who refuse will be punished. Those, however, who take
refuge in the Messiah, that is, place their faith and trust in Him for their
salvation, will receive new life.
2. Proverbs 30:4
The second passage comes from the wise king, Solomon, who compiled the Book
of Proverbs. In Proverbs 30:4, we have a series of six questions. The first
four questions all ask the same question of identity: “Who did it?”
The first question is: Who has gone up
into heaven and come down?
The second question is: Who has
gathered the wind in his fists?
The third question is: Who has
bound up the waters in his garment?
And the fourth question is: Who has
established all the ends of the earth?
These are four questions that Solomon is asking, indicating that the answer
is very clear. When we look at the events described in these four questions,
it is obvious that only one Person could possibly do all those things: God
Now we come to the fifth question: What is his
name? We see that only God can do those things in the first four
questions, but now, “what is God’s name?” No one really knows how to
pronounce His name anymore because, throughout the centuries, we feared to
take God’s name in vain and the pronunciation has been forgotten. In Hebrew, we have it
in four letters: YHVH. It is the name
for which we substitute the word Adonai.
In English, we sometimes give it the name Jehovah.
Actually, the name is YHVH, the Great
I AM. So it is God, the Great
I AM, who did all these things.
Now, let us go on to the sixth question, which is found in the very same
verse: what is his son’s name, if you know?
Notice how Solomon is posing the sixth question. First, there were four
questions asking who did all these great things. The answer was: God did all
those things. The fifth questions was: “What is God’s name?” The answer:
YHVH, the Great
I AM, is His name. But then Solomon poses a trick question
because he knows that, at this stage of biblical history, it would be
impossible to answer. That is why he adds the phrase, “if you know,” to the
sixth question. The question is: what is his son’s
name, if you know? The obvious meaning here is that this God, the Great I AM, has a Son!
Until the time of Solomon and later, we did not know His name because it was
not as yet revealed. This was not an unusual approach in the Scriptures. For
instance, throughout the whole history of the Book of Genesis, no one knew
God’s name, because He revealed it to Moses in the Book of Exodus first, in chapter 3:14-15 and secondly, in
chapter 6:2-3. The people living during the time of Genesis knew that there
was a God, they just did not know His name. By the same token, no one knew
the name of the Son of God throughout Old Testament Judaism. But Old Testament Judaism did know that God had a Son, for both
David and Solomon spoke of Him.
The Messiah’s Sonship with God is thus related to His Messiahship. In Psalm
2, this Sonship is related strongly to the Messiah’s Kingship.
B. The God-Man Concept and the Messiah
Another aspect of the Kingship of the Messiah is the strange God-Man Concept
concerning the Messiah. Some passages which deal with the Kingship of the
Messiah add a whole new dimension to the Person of the Messiah, making Him a
man, and yet more than a man.
1. Isaiah 9:6-7
|For unto us a child is born, unto us a
son is given; and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his
name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, Mighty God, Everlasting
Father, Prince of Peace. Of the increase of his government and of
peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his
kingdom, to establish it, and to uphold it with justice and with
righteousness from henceforth even for ever. The zeal of Jehovah of
hosts will perform this.
Verse 6 declares that a son will be born into the Jewish world who will
eventually control the reigns of government.
Verse 7 identifies Him as the Messianic descendant of David; it gives a
dramatic description of His reign, which will be characterized by
justice. But in verse 6, He is given names that can only be true of God Himself:
Mighty God and
Everlasting Father. Wonderful Counselor
and Prince of Peace can be true of a
man. This new dimension, presented by Isaiah regarding the Person of the
Messiah, is that the Messiah had to be a man, a descendant of David, but He was to be God as well.
This further explains what Isaiah said two chapters earlier in Isaiah 7:14,
when he stated: Therefore the Lord himself will
give you a sign: behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall
call his name Immanuel.
In this passage, which we discussed earlier, Isaiah declares that there is
going to be a Son born of a virgin. Then
He is given a name, which is said to be Immanuel.
In the Bible, when a parent names his child, it shows the thinking of the
parents. However, when God gives a person a name, it actually represents the
person’s very character as only God can foresee. So when this Child is named
Immanuel by God, the name portrays the
actual character of the Child. What does Immanuel
mean? It means: “With us, God.” So here, we have a Child that is born of a virgin and who is “With us, God” or “God
is among us!”
The Isaiah 9 passage further clarifies that this Son is a descendant of
David, and He is labeled as God Himself. So Isaiah clearly portrays
the Messiah as the God-Man.
2. Jeremiah 23:5-6
Nor is Isaiah alone in presenting this picture. Jeremiah echoes Isaiah
in Jeremiah 23:5-6:
|Behold, the days come, says Jehovah, that
I will raise unto David a righteous Branch, and he shall reign as king
and deal wisely, and shall execute justice and righteousness in the land. In his days Judah shall
be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely; and this is his name whereby
he shall be called: Jehovah our righteousness.
Here, too, a descendant of David reigns upon the throne of David, and the
character of His reign is described as one of peace and security for Israel.
Yet He is given the very name of God, which can only belong to God Himself,
Adonai Tzidkenu, Jehovah our righteousness.
This is the YHVH, the very name that God
revealed to Moses as being His own personal name: I
AM. So once again, the future King Messiah of Israel is seen as a
man on one hand, but as God on the other. As with the Sonship Concept, the God-Man Concept is related to the
3. Micah 5:2
Let’s look again at a passage we studied earlier when we talked about the
place of the Messiah’s birth. We pointed out that His birth would be in
Bethlehem according to Micah 5:2. Let us reread that verse:
But you, Beth-lehem Ephrathah, which are little to
be among the thousands of Judah, out of you shall one come forth unto me
that is to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth are from of old, from
According to Micah 5:2 the Messiah’s human origin will be Bethlehem. But
Micah states even further that: His goings forth
are from old, from everlasting. This Individual, who is to be
born in Bethlehem, has His origins from eternity. Only one Person is eternal
from eternity past, and that is God Himself. As to His human origin, He was
born in Bethlehem; as to His divine origin, He is from eternity, which means
He is both God and man at the same time.
4. Zechariah 13:7
Another passage, which brings out this God-Man Concept, is Zechariah 13:7:
Awake, O sword, against my shepherd, and against
the man that is my fellow, says Jehovah of hosts: smite the shepherd, and
the sheep shall be scattered; and I will turn my hand upon the little ones.
The Hebrew word translated as fellow
means “my equal.” The verse literally reads, “Awake, O sword, against my
shepherd, and against the man that is my equal or deity, says Jehovah of
hosts:” Again, the Messiah was to be both God and man.
This, then, concludes the picture of the Messiah given in the Old Testament.
On the one hand, He is a suffering and dying Messiah. On the other, He is a
conquering and reigning Messiah called God and the Son of God. The solution
of the rabbis was to formulate the Doctrine of Two Messiahs: Messiah, the
Son of Joseph, and Messiah, the Son of David.
VII. THE MAJORITY VIEW OF THE MESSIAH AND THE MINORITY VIEW
A different kind of objection is raised over and over again: If Jesus were
the Messiah, why do not the rabbis believe in him? Or it may be stated like
this: If Jesus is the Messiah, why is it that very few Jews believe this?
The implication here is that something cannot be true for the Jew unless
most rabbis or most Jewish people accept it to be true. In other words, the
implication is that truth is determined by “majority vote.”
However, truth is not determined by majority vote. If something is true, it
is going to be true if everybody believes it or if nobody believes it. Truth
is something that is absolute; it never changes. It is irrelevant how many
people believe the truth. It is still true because of what it is in itself.
It has always been clear from the Old Testament that it was only a minority
of Jewish people who believed. In the days of Elijah the Prophet, only a
mere 7,000 were believers from among hundreds of thousands of Jews. Only a
minority of the Jewish people have ever believed, and that is still true
today. Just because a minority believes something, does not make it wrong.
And because a majority believes something, does not make it right. The issue
is: What do the Scriptures teach? By comparing the New Testament with the
Old Testament, it is very clear that the Messiah of the Old Testament is
Jesus of the New Testament.
All scriptures are in the American Standard Version
unless otherwise noted.
If you enjoyed this Bible study, Dr. Fruchtenbaum
recommends the following Messianic Bible studies (mbs):
mbs 003: The Basis of the Second Coming of the Messiah
mbs 007: Jews, Gentiles, and Christians
mbs 011: The Suffering of Messiah of Isaiah 53
mbs 013: What the New Testament Says About Jesus
mbs 014: Why Did the Messiah Have to Die?
016: Nicodemus, A Rabbi's Quest
mbs 026: Zionism: What It Is and What It Is Not
mbs 087: The Book of Romans and the Jews
Also, Ariel Ministries' series on Christology
Many of Dr. Fruchtenbaum's Messianic Bible studies are
available for free online reading
and listening at Ariel Ministries'
See. All of his materials are available
for purchase at Ariel
Ministries in various formats. Other select
materials and resources are available at Ariel, as well.
Arnold G. Fruchtenbaum, Th.M., Ph.D.,
is founder and director of Ariel Ministries.
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